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We need to form a right triangle so we could use the Pythagorean Theorem.

The Pythagorean Theorem states that:

The Pythagorean Theorem applies to right triangles only. a and b are the side lengths of the legs while c is the length of the hypotenuse.

In a Cartesian plane the side lengths a and b are represented like this:
(x_a-y_a)=a \\ (x_b-yb)=b

So the Pythagorean Theorem would be:

We have (x_a,y_a) as (-1,3)
and (x_b,y_b) as (5, -1)

We substitute the values to the Pythagorean theorem:
c^2=(-1-5)^2+(3-(-1))^2 \\ =(-6)^2+4^2 \\ =36+16 \\ 50

c^2=50 \\ c= \sqrt{50} =5 \sqrt{2}

Therefore the distance between points is 5 \sqrt{2}