The Fertile Crescent is an area of a good farmland in the Middle East, with moist and fertile soil, caused by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The rivers provided the land with food and they also gave this land a crescent shaped look. It is commonly believed that the civilization began there.
This name was introduced by James Breasted, an American archeologist and historian, who wrote: "There is no name, either geographical or political, which includes all of this great semicircle... Hence we are obliged to coin a term and call it the Fertile Crescent."