The political structure in the colonial era is purely from monarchy. All of the power is in the hands of the royalty and the people they put in the country to govern as much as handle the Filipinos. And the church is tied with the government back then.
While today, democracy is the freedom to do everything we want, by the people for the people. The system of choosing a candidate and electing them by vote. And unlike in colonial Philippines, is independent as well as a part of the world not under any colonialist.