Leptospirosis caused by a bacteria called spirochetes, this infection is transmitted by rats, cats and dog with their contaminated urine. The infection affect the organs such as the kidneys and liver... for severe cases, it also affect the brain. Usuallyy, this infection infect a person with an open wound ,, that wade in flood waters or canals that is contaminated by a rat urine.. what you can do to prevent this.. all you have to do is to avoid flooded areas, keep your sorroundings clean , avoid getting open wounds, avoid contact with stagnant water. Avoid infestation by these dirty animals. And also if you have a leptospirosis certainly you should be seen and examined by a doctor.