Antonio Luna de San Pedro y Novicio Ancheta (29 October 1866 – 5 June 1899), an Ilocano born in Manila, was a Filipinogeneral who fought in the Philippine–American War. He was also the founder of the Philippines's first military academy, which existed during the First Philippine Republic. He was regarded as the most brilliant of the Filipino military officers during the war. Succeeding Artemio Ricarte as commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army, he sought to apply his background in military science to the fledgling army. A sharpshooter himself, he organized professional guerrilla soldiers later to be known as the "Luna Sharpshooters" and the "Black Guard". His three-tier defense, now known as the Luna Defense Line, gave the American troops a hard campaign in the provinces north of Manila. This defense line culminated in the creation of a military base in the Cordillera. Despite his commitment to discipline the army and serve the Republic which attracted the admiration of people, his temper caused some to abhor him. His efforts were not without recognition during his time, for he was awarded the Philippine Republic Medal in 1899. He was also a member of the Malolos Congress. Besides his military studies, Luna also studied pharmacy, literature and chemistry.