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Chromosome abnormalities are clinical conditions caused by an irregularity or abnormal “chromosome” where there is extra (gain) or missing (loss) chromosome material. Resulting rates of chromosome disorders can be very different. The large majority of carriers of balanced rearrangements might have problems in reproduction. Symptoms arising may include physicals defects, health problems, challenging behavior and learning difficulties. Balanced translocations occur when there is no net loss or gain of chromosome material.  Although in some cases, gene disruptions at breakpoints of translocation can cause ill effects  genetic abnormalities, it is not usually related with phenotypic abnormalities.

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