Presidency of the First Republic of the PhilippinesAguinaldo CabinetPresident Aguinaldo had two cabinets in the year 1899. Thereafter, the war situation resulted in his ruling by decree.OFFICENAMETERMPresidentEmilio Aguinaldo1899–1901Prime MinisterApolinario MabiniJanuary 21-May 7, 1899Pedro PaternoMay 7-November 13, 1899Minister of FinanceMariano TriasJanuary 21-May 7, 1899Hugo IlaganMay 7-November 13, 1899Minister of the InteriorTeodoro SandicoJanuary 21-May 7, 1899Severino de las AlasMay 7-November 13, 1899Minister of WarBaldomero AguinaldoJanuary 21-May 7, 1899Mariano TriasMay 7-November 13, 1899Minister of WelfareGracio GonzagaJanuary 21-May 7, 1899Minister of Foreign AffairsApolinario MabiniJanuary 21-May 7, 1899Felipe BuencaminoMay 7-November 13, 1899Minister of Public InstructionAguedo Velarde1899Minister of Public Works and CommunicationsMaximo Paterno1899Minister of Agriculture, Industry and CommerceLeon Ma. GuerreroMay 7-November 13, 1899Philippine-American WarAguinaldo boarding the USSVicksburg following his capture in 1901.On the night of February 4, 1899, a Filipino was shot by an American sentry as he crossed Silencio Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila. This incident is considered the beginning of the Philippine-American War, and open fighting soon broke out between American troops and pro-independence Filipinos. Superior American firepower drove Filipino troops away from the city, and the Malolos government had to move from one place to another. Offers by U.S. President William McKinley to set up an autonomous Philippine government under an American flag were rejected.Aguinaldo led resistance to the Americans, then retreated to northern Luzon with the Americans on his trail. On June 2, 1899, Gen. Antonio Luna, an arrogant but brilliant general and Aguinaldo’s looming rival in the military hierarchy, received a telegram from Aguinaldo, ordering him to proceed to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, for a meeting at the Cabanatuan Church Convent. Three days later, on June 5, Luna arrived and learned that Aguinaldo was not at the appointed place. As Gen. Luna was about to depart, he was shot, then stabbed to death by Aguinaldo's men. Luna was later buried in the churchyard; Aguinaldo made no attempt to punish or discipline Luna's murderers.Less than two years later, after the famous Battle of Tirad Pass and the death of his last most trusted general, Gregorio del Pilar, Aguinaldo was captured in Palanan, Isabela, on March 23, 1901, by U.S. General Frederick Funston, with the help of Macabebe trackers. The American task force gained access to Aguinaldo's camp by pretending to be captured prisoners.Funston later noted Aguinaldo's "dignified bearing," "excellent qualities," and "humane instincts." Aguinaldo volunteered to swear fealty to the United States, if his life was spared. Aguinaldo pledged allegiance to America on April 1, 1901, formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines. He issued a manifesto urging the revolutionaries to lay down their arms. Others, like Miguel Malvar and Macario Sakay, continued to resist the American occupation.