Physical bullying

Physical bullying includes hitting, kicking, tripping, pinching and pushing or damaging property.

Verbal bullying

Verbal bullying includes name calling, insults, teasing, intimidation, homophobic or racist remarks, or verbal abuse.

Covert or hidden bullying

This sort of bullying is often harder to recognise and can be carried out behind the bullied person's back. It is designed to harm someone's social reputation and/or cause humiliation. Covert bullying includes:

lying and spreading rumours
negative facial or physical gestures, menacing or contemptuous looks
playing nasty jokes to embarrass and humiliate
mimicking unkindly
encouraging others to socially exclude someone
damaging someone's social reputation or social acceptance.


Cyberbullying can be overt or covert bullying behaviours using digital technologies, including hardware such as computers and smartphones and software such as social media, instant messaging, texts, websites and other.

Cyberbullying can happen at any time. It can be in public or in private and sometimes only known to the target and the person bullying. It includes:

Abusive or hurtful texts emails or posts, images or videos
Deliberately excluding others online
Nasty gossip or rumours
Imitating others online or using their log-in.