Pragmatism is a philosophical movement that includes those who claim that an ideology or proposition is true if it works satisfactorily, that the meaning of a proposition is to be found in the practical consequences of accepting it, and that unpractical ideas are to be rejected.
Essentialism is the view that, for any specific entity (such as an animal, a group of people, a physical object, a concept), there is a set of attributes which are necessary to its identity and function. In Western thought the concept is found in the work of Plato and Aristotle.
Constructivism is a theory of knowledge that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas.
Perennialism focuses first on personal development, while essentialism focuses first on essential skills.
Contemporary philosophical realism is the belief that some aspect of our reality isontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, perceptions, linguistic practices,beliefs, etc.
Realism may be spoken of with respect to other minds, the past, the future,universals, mathematical entities (such asnatural numbers), moral categories, thematerial world, and thought. Realism can also be promoted in an unqualified sense, in which case it asserts the mind-independent existence of a visible world, as opposed toskepticism and solipsism. Philosophers who profess realism state that truth consists in the mind's correspondence to reality.