Urine is the ultrafiltrate of blood so it carries dissolved materials which are products of metabolism. the following are the characteristics of normal and pathological urine:


Color ranges from colorless to straw colored or a darker color depending on fluid intake and substances taken like medicines and food supplement.

Specific gravity ranges from 1.008-1.030

Transparency -transparent

pH - 4.6 -8

Odor - mild

Pathologic urine

color - Dark amber or reddish to brownish color

transparency - turbid due to presence of pus, bacteria, amount of crystals, semen, mucous threads, WBC and RBC

Odor - fruity and or strong odor

pH - more basic(9 or greater ) or more acid (below 4)

Specific gravity - higher than the normal