The Physical Sciences

Physics: The study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Physicists study such subjects as gravity, light, and time. Albert Einstein, a famous physicist, developed the Theory of Relativity.Chemistry: The science that deals with the composition, properties, reactions, and the structure of matter. The chemist Louis Pasteur, for example, discovered pasteurization, which is the process of heating liquids such as milk and orange juice to kill harmful germs.Astronomy: The study of the universe beyond the Earth's atmosphere.

The Earth Sciences

Geology: The science of the origin, history, and structure of the Earth, and the physical, chemical, and biological changes that it has experienced or is experiencing.Oceanography: The exploration and study of the ocean.Paleontology: The science of the forms of life that existed in prehistoric or geologic periods.Meteorology: The science that deals with the atmosphere and its phenomena, such as weather and climate.

The Life Sciences (Biology)

Botany: The study of plants.Zoology: The science that covers animals and animal life.Genetics: The study of heredity.Medicine: The science of diagnosing, treating, and preventing illness, disease, and injury.