Manilese history begins around 65,000 B.C. the time the Callao Man first settled in the Philippines, predating the arrival of theNegritos and the Malayo-Polynesians. The nearby Angono Petroglyphs, are then dated to be around 3,000 B.C. and the earliest recorded History of Manila, the capital of the Philippines, dates back to the year 900 AD as recorded in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. By the 13th century, the city consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter near the mouth of the Pasig River, the river that bisects the city into north and south. The official name of the city under its Malay aristocracy was Seludong/Selurung, which was the same name given for the general region of southwestern Luzon at that time, suggesting that it was the capital ofAncient Tondo. However, the city became known by the name given to it by its Tagalog inhabitants, Maynila, based on the niladplant, a flowering mangrove plant that grew on the marshy shores of the Manila Bay.
Manila became the seat of the colonial government of Spain when it gained sovereignty over the Philippine Islands in 1565. The seat of the Spanish government was situated within the fortified walls of Old Manila (now referred to as Intramuros meaning within the walls). The walls were constructed to keep out invading Chinese pirates and protect the city from native uprisings. Several communities eventually grew outside the walls of Manila. The city became the center of trade between Manila and Acapulco, which lasted for three centuries and brought the goods from the Americas to South East Asia and vice versa.
There were a number of raids and invasion attempts made upon Manila during the Spanish period. The twenty month British occupation of the city (1762-1764) came closest to success when the city was held as a base for an attempt to conquer the Philippines, but the defeat of the British campaign resulted in the city being handed back as part of the peace settlement of theSeven Years' War.
In 1898, Spain ceded control of the Philippines after over three hundred year of colonial rule to the United States after the Treaty of Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish–American War. During the American Period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham was done on the portions of the city south of the Pasig River.
During World War II, much of the city was destroyed, but the city was rebuilt in after the war. It was the second most destroyed city in the world after Warsaw, Poland during World War II. The Metropolitan Manila region was enacted as an independent entity in 1975.