Primitive humans which lived throughout much of Europe, but particulary in France, and Germany. The term "Neanderthal," derives from the Neanderthal Valley in Germany, where the first fossils were found. Anatomically, they differed from their chief competitors, Cro-Magnon man in that they tended to be more squat, with thicker bones, and brow ridges. They existed through hunter-gathering activities, as did the Cro-Magnon, but seem to have been less technologically innovative, a quality which may have contributed to their ultimate demise.