The best way to learn notes is taking music classes, but I will give you same basics.

First of all, you need to know that notes are written on a the staff, and before them there is a treble clef. Notes consists of parts, which shows the time value of the note.
- the note head, which can be either open or closed
- the stem (either up or down)
- the flag (pointed to the right) - the more flags the shortest sound