A table of contents has the pages going to different sections of the book
in a text book, the table of contents shows the different lessons in the textbook while in a novel, it shows the chapters of the novel

and index has different words arranged in alphabetical order and shows the pages where you can find those words

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The index is at the end of the book and is a very detailed list of words or theories that can be found on specifi pages throughout the book while table of contents gives you a list of chapters, main subjects, headings and is always at the beginning of the book.