Alternate titles:  Harapp ā n civilization; Indus valley civilization Indus civilization ,  also called  Indus valley civilization  or  Harappan civilization , the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. It was first identified in 1921 and Harappa  in the Punjab region and then in 1922 and Mohenjo-daro  (Mohenjodaro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region, both now in Pakistan . Subsequently, vestiges of the civilization were found as far apart as     Sutkagen Dor , near the shore of the Arabian Sea 300 miles (480 km) west of Karachi , also in Pakistan, and  Rupnagar , in India , at the foot of the Shimla Hills 1,000 miles (1,600 km) to the northeast. Later exploration established its existence southward down the west coast of India as far as the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), 500 miles (800 km) southeast of Karachi, and as far east as the Yamuna (Jumna) River basin, 30 miles (50 km) north of Delhi . It is thus decidedly the most extensive of the world's three earliest civilizations; the other two are those of Mesopotamia and Egypt , both of which began somewhat before it. ( See also India .)       
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