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    - gerunds are words that can function as a noun or a verb. 
    - they are made by adding -ing to verbs like 
             talk + ing = talking=gerund
          sleep + ing = sleeping = an example of a gerund
             laugh-ing = laughing = gerund
In using them, I am emphasizing what I said before " can function as a noun or a verb." We should be mindful in how we use them whether we use the gerunds as a verb or a noun. Common errors occur if the person use it in an improper way. Mistakes are done when the emphasis (verb or noun) is wrong.

So that we can understand it more, let us set an example:
 Instructions: Write V if the function of the gerund is a verb and N if its function is a noun. If the sentence is a V translate it to N, and vice versa.

1.) I heard them talking. N = Wrong! It should be V because the sentence emphasizes them as a verb like "they are talking.
Translation to N: I heard their talking. Correct! Because it emphasized that the talking is a noun because there is this pronoun "their."
(I hope you understand my complicated explanation! Sorry! :) :)